Photoluminescence (PL) Mapping
with Defect Analysis

With its unique optical design technology, the Imperia detects and classifies yield-killing defects with the additional benefit of simultaneous state-of-the-art photoluminescence (PL) production monitoring. There are significant economic savings to be gained by more accurately predicting MOCVD reactor yield and PM schedules. Combining these two post-epitaxial metrology screening functions into a single high throughput system minimizes valuable fab space use and cassette handling time. The Imperia definitively distinguishes yield-killing defects from nuisance defects by contrasting traditional darkfield images with the electrically active defect PL images – providing the PL process control benefits of wafer/platter uniformity and tighter binning yield.


PL Mapping
High density imaging of peak lambda, peak intensity, FWHM and other LED materials relevant parameters.
Measurement accuracy and reproducibility (≤1 nm)
Capability of measuring bare and patterned wafers at resolutions down to 125 μm.

Defect Analysis
High resolution mapping for defect inspection down to 125 μm
Brightfield PL channel for detecting electrically active defects
Defect extraction, morphological analysis and quantification
Die-based yield binning capabilities allow yield prediction on a die level
Real-Time Defect Extractor (RDE) software with KLARF output

Epitaxial Layer Thickness
Epitaxial layer thickness and normalized reflectivity imaging at high resolution down to 125 μm.  Excellent measurement accuracy (2% of nominal thickness) and reproducibility (1δ ≤ 1%)

Wafer Bow
Wafer shape profiling at multiple angles and high resolution down to 125 μm
Full wafer 3D bow reconstruction via data interpolation and smoothing ±500 μm bow measurement range and ±6 μm reproducibility


  • Defect analysis and classification software capabilities
  • High throughput for large substrates, 90 WPH for 150 mm samples
  • Fully automated platform with GEM/SECS II capabilities
  • Illumination wavelength options at 532, 405, 375 and 355 nm
  • Detection options at 350-850 nm and 400-1,000 nm


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